Introduction to the DMS500

Since 2002, successive generations of the DMS500 have offered a unique combination of measurement capabilities for engine development. The DMS500 can output particle size , particle number (PN) and soot mass (PM) in real time.

With comprehensive test cell integration and raw sampling capability, the DMS500 is ideally suited to rolling road or engine test cell applications. Hundreds of technical publications including SAE papers have used DMS500s for engine research.

Measurement Metrics

Particle emissions are subject to a variety of metrics, including particle mass and particle number.

Particle Mass

Real-time engine out mass measurement using DMS500Particle mass is normally measured for legislative purposes using filter paper measurements. This technique has required continuing improvement in sensitivity of mass measurement devices, since the change in mass of the filter paper becomes progressively smaller as engine calibrations improve.

Filter paper mass is inherently an offline technique- reqiuring collection of soot over a period of time before the final weight can be taken. Since engines are tested on transient drive cycles, such an integrated measurement gives no information about what points in the drive cycle contribute most to the cycle soot emissions. An online mass measurement technique is needed to support this. Instruments such as the AVL Micro Soot Sensor allow direct mass measurment, but have a T90-10% response time of around 1 second. Since transients on engine test cycles are typically sub-second, and the AFR excursions in both Diesel and gasoline engines are typically associated with high particle mass emissions, an instrument with significantly sub second T10-90% response time is desirable. The DMS500 offers a T10-90% response time of 200ms.

The DMS500's sampling system allows measurement both pre- and post-aftertreatment. For example, sampling upstream of a GPF or DPF, the DMS500 can calculate the soot mass output from the engine presented to the filter. This mass data can be used to optimise the engine out soot mass, and to predict the GPF/DPF soot load. Sampling downstream of the GPF/DPF, the DMS500 can give real-time tailpipe particle mass, showing the combined effect of engine out emissions and after-treatment performance on tailpipe emissions.

Particle Number

Comparison of DMS500 and PMP/CPC particle number dataEuro 6 legislation imposes a restriction on the number of solid particles a vehicle can emit, either as N/km for light duty or N/kwh for heavy duty.

The particle counting technique is specified in the legislation. This technique offers excellent sensitivity (for post DPF or GPF measurements where concentrations may be low) and commercially available instruments include the Horiba MEXA 1000 SPCS and the AVL 489 APC.

However, the T10-90% response time of Euro 6 PN Counters is typically greater than 1 second. Due to the highly transient nature of particle emissions, particularly from GDI engines, this restricts their use in calibration of the engine / strategy for compliance, although the final certification testing must be performed with such a system.

The DMS500 system is a non-certification system which uses a different technique to measure particle concentration. The DMS500 offers a T10-90% response time of 200ms, and is correspondingly able to give greater insight into transient calibration issues which contribute a significant proportion of the total emissions on cycle, while correlating with legislative measurements.

The DMS500 has been adopted by vehicle manufacturers and engine developers worldwide as a key tool to understand and reduce PN emissions, particularly from GDI engines.

Particle Size

As particle filters are adopted for both gasoline and Diesel engines, the particle size becomes increasingly important. Although the two metrics for particle emissions (mass and number) do not require particle size measurement, the efficiency of filtration of a GPF or a DPF is heavily size dependent. To understand the filtration performance of a GPF or DPF, measurement of the size distribution of the exhaust is required. Assuming a nominal size distribution will lead to errors- for example load and EGR both affect the particle size distribution.

DMS500 Features

DMS500 sampling from vehicle
  • Measurement of the particle size / number spectrum from 5nm to 2.5μm
  • Measurement of Particle Number (PN) for Euro 6 development
  • Measurement of Particle Mass (PM)
  • The fastest time response available: 10 Hz data, 200ms T10-90% response
  • Raw sampling, pre- or post-aftertreatment
  • Test cell integration via AK protocol - suitable for auto mapping projects
  • Capable of cold-cell testing
  • Capable of high-altitude testing
  • Measurement of particle emissions from other sources- e.g. blowby, braking...

Fastest Time Response

The fast T10-90% time response is especially useful for investigation of fast changing concentrations and particle sizes. This is particularly important for engine development especially with Gasoline Direct Injection, where high particulate number emissions tend to be associated with transient conditions, rather than steady state.

Even during steady state conditions, the DMS500 dramatically increases the efficiency and convenience of experimental measurements, reqiuring less time at steady state conditions to make the measurement.

Control and Test Cell Integration

Screenshot of DMS user interface software

The DMS500 is controlled by a PC via an Ethernet interface, allowing the PC to be located up to 200 m from the instrument.

The user interface includes datalogging to hard disk, and data can be sent over AK interface to the test bench.

Control of the DMS500 over AK from the test bench is also possible, for automated operation.

Data presentation tools for MS Excel are included to assist in visualising the data from the DMS500.

Raw Sampling System

Heavy Duty Diesel spectrum on FTP Transient Cycle

The DMS500 is available as standard with a heated sampling line (191C operation) and two stages of integrated dilution. This enables direct measurement from the engine exhaust with no additional equipment required.

Traceable Calibration

Each DMS500 undergoes a calibration procedure, involving real aerosols, taking full account of particle losses, and even different particle morphologies thus preventing the reduction in accuracy at larger sizes seen in some other analyzers. Traceable calibration certificates for spherical and soot calibrations are provided.

An optional portable size check kit allows the user to check the sizing accuracy of the DMS500 on site, without the need for any other equipment.

More Information

Contact Cambustion for more information and prices.

Key Application Notes 
Title Data type Download File Size Last updated
Number : Size Spectrum Correlation with Particulate Mass Measurements Application note PDF icon dms01v05.pdf 194.03 KB 24-Feb-2015
Measurement of Volatile Aerosols with the dms500 Application note PDF icon dms02v01.pdf 45.93 KB 24-Feb-2015
DMS500 sampling options Application note PDF icon dms03v04.pdf 511.06 KB 24-Feb-2015
DMS500 measurement of drug delivery inhalers Application note PDF icon dms04v02.pdf 85.64 KB 24-Feb-2015
Measurement of DPF/CRT performance with DMS500 Application note PDF icon dms05v02.pdf 1.2 MB 24-Feb-2015
Real-time mode finding and lognormal fitting with DMS series fast particulate spectrometers Application note PDF icon dms06v03.pdf 682.83 KB 24-Feb-2015
Flame Sampling with DMS500 Application note PDF icon dms07v01.pdf 260.74 KB 24-Feb-2015
Gasoline Direct Injection Particulate Measurement with the DMS Series Application note PDF icon dms08v01.pdf 919.53 KB 24-Feb-2015
Particle number measurement with the DMS Series Application note PDF icon dms09v01.pdf 351.19 KB 24-Feb-2015
Ambient aerosol sampling with DMS500 Application note PDF icon dms10v01.pdf 295.83 KB 24-Feb-2015
DMS500 Installation Guide for Engine Sampling Application note PDF icon dms11v02.pdf 512.72 KB 02-Feb-2015
Real-time aerosol size, number and mass measurements from an electronic cigarette Application note PDF icon dms12v01.pdf 120.11 KB 24-Apr-2014
Real-time particle size measurements of user triggered electronic cigarette smoke Application note PDF icon dms14v02.pdf 910.84 KB 16-Aug-2016
Real-time particle size measurements of heat-not-burn tobacco device Application note PDF icon dms15v01.pdf 870.75 KB 09-Oct-2014
Brake particle measurements Application note PDF icon dms17v01.pdf 529.01 KB 08-Mar-2016
Nanoparticle emissions from cooking Application note PDF icon dms19v01 Nanoparticle emissions from cooking.pdf 1.94 MB 10-Oct-2016